Emoji epistemology.

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Emoji diversity is old news. The Unicode Consortium proposed recommendations for the interoperability of emoji across platforms in late 2014. Customizable ethnically-diverse emoji representations are on the way. Inter-platform emoji that get lost in translation even have dedicated op-ed pieces (h/t God of Internet culture, Gabriele, for the article). Emoji creative art is also all the rage, and I’ve been attempting to curate a list here for some time (please feel free to add to it).

But experiencing this ‘loss in translation’ and negotiating user-experience and the subjective signification of emoji was an intriguing affair.

It began on a Saturday afternoon, post-lunch coma. @wishcrys resumed her regular transmission of haphazardly brainfarting sans intellect on-the-go.

Some tweets got RT-ed, and accumulated reactions.

For instance, between Apple and Windows, gender and ethnicity got lost in translation. Apple’s pink-clad woman emoji shows up as a blue-clad man. The various ethnicities of the Apple emoji men are white-washed in Windows.

Some times, emoji get upgraded/rescued from poor health issues.

Some times assigning visual gender is subconscious, second nature, ingrained, or a matter of symbolic association.

Some times, artifacts are similarly gendered from symbolic association, muscle memory, or the whimsical organization by app developers.

Unlike their Apple counterparts, women emoji of Windows get to experience fashion variety.

If you’re interested, the good people of Emojipedia put together an archive of emoji as experienced across different platforms. (Credits for these screen grabs and the opening gif to Emojipedia).

What to make of all of this?

image

Awwyis. Emoji epistemology studies, any one?

Resources on Emoji and Emoticons

Updated 31 January 2017.
This list is not exhaustive. If you have a suggestion please do comment below.

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ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS ON EMOJI

The semiotics of emoji: The rise of visual language in the age of the internet
http://www.bloomsbury.com/us/the-semiotics-of-emoji-9781474282000/

The conservatism of emoji: Work, affect, and communication
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/2056305115604853?ssource=mfr&rss=1

Emoj(il)literacy: toward a grammar of pictographs
http://siteslab.org/cwcon/2015/proposal/emojilliteracy-toward-grammar-pictographs

“Blissfully happy” or “ready to fight”: Varying Interpretations of Emoji
http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~bhecht/publications/ICWSM2016_emoji.pdf

Characterising the inventive appropriation of emoji as relationally meaningful in mediated close personal relationships
http://opus.bath.ac.uk/46780/

Exploring the use of emoji as a visual research method for eliciting young children’s voices in childhood research
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03004430.2016.1219730?journalCode=gecd20

Use of emoticon and emoji in tweets for food-related emotional expression
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950329315300173

I can haz more science emoji? Host of nerd icons proposed.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27853226 

Using emoji pictures to strengthen the immunity of passwords against attackers
http://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/viewFile/6360/6111

Instagrammatics and digital methods: studying visual social media, from selfies and GIFs to memes and emoji
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/22041451.2016.1155332?journalCode=rcrp20

Can emoji be used as a direct method to measure emotional associations to food names? Preliminary investigations with consumers in USA and China
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950329316301781 

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ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS ON EMOTICONS

Emotional Expression Online: Gender Differences in Emoticon Use
http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/10949310050191809

MoodLens: an emoticon-based sentiment analysis system for chinese tweets
http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2339772

Emoticon Smoothed Language Models for Twitter Sentiment Analysis
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3898/03c46aaf1285a720ad115bac2a6d1aa7464d.pdf

A longitudinal study of emoticon use in text messaging from smartphones
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563211002561

Emoticon Style: Interpreting Differences in Emoticons Across Cultures
http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/40936445/6132-30395-1-PB.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1484899293&Signature=Cm4pY37NSVNAMILULCEPFa8yTJ0%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DEmoticon_Style_Interpreting_Differences.pdf 

CAO: A Fully Automatic Emoticon Analysis System Based on Theory of Kinesics
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5520657/?reload=true

Emoticon-based text steganography in chat
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5406559/

Emoticon Usage in Task-Oriented and Socio-Emotional Contexts in Online Discussion Boards
http://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/islandora/object/fsu%3A168827/

Emotional Expression Online: the Impact of Task, Relationship and Personality Perception on Emoticon Usage in Instant Messenger
http://aisel.aisnet.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1080&context=pacis2007

Emoticon Recommendation for Japanese Computer-Mediated Communication
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/6693490/

Microblog sentiment analysis with emoticon space model
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-45558-6_7#page-1 

Can We Read Emotions from a Smiley Face? Emoticon-based Distant Supervision for Subjectivity and Sentiment Analysis of Arabic Twitter Feeds
http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/35794475/ES3LOD-final-submitted.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1484900098&Signature=2SzSHmexJIDnBQxV%2BXX40dFD73Y%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DCan_We_Read_Emotions_from_a_Smiley_Face.pdf

Emoticon use Increases Plain Milk and Vegetable Purchase in a School Cafeteria without Adversely Affecting Total Milk Purchase
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014929181500956X 

Emoticon convergence in Internet chat rooms
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10350330.2012.739000

From emoticon to universal symbolic signs: Can written language survive in cyberspace?
http://bernstein.iicm.tugraz.at:8080/Ressourcen/Papers/microlearning_2007.pdf

A Pragmatic Investigation of Emoticon Use in Nonnative /Native Speaker Text Chat
http://www.languageatinternet.org/articles/2014/vandergriff/ 

Patterns of Emoticon Usage in ESL Students’ Discussion Forum Writing
http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/calicojournal.29.4.694.pdf?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

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Discourse

Don’t know the difference between emoji and emoticons
http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/feb/06/difference-between-emoji-and-emoticons-explained

The Conservatism of Emoji
http://thenewinquiry.com/essays/the-conservatism-of-emoji/

Emoji Epistemology
https://wishcrys.com/2015/01/24/emoji-epistemology/

Is an Emoji Worth 1,000 Words?
https://www.themarshallproject.org/2015/02/02/is-an-emoji-worth-1-000-words?ref=hp-1-111

Emoji is dragging us back to the dark ages – and all we can do is smile
http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/jonathanjonesblog/2015/may/27/emoji-language-dragging-us-back-to-the-dark-ages-yellow-smiley-face?CMP=fb_gu

We’re all using these emoji wrong
http://www.wired.com/2015/05/using-emoji-wrong/?mbid=social_fb

Emojineering Part 1: Machine Learning for Emoji Trends
http://instagram-engineering.tumblr.com/post/117889701472/emojineering-part-1-machine-learning-for-emoji

Lost In Emoji Translation: Apple vs. Android
https://medium.com/matter/lost-in-emoji-translation-apple-vs-android-648fdd57ca25?section=suggested

Emoji: SwiftKey report shows Australia is ‘the land of vice and indulgence’
http://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/life/emoji-swiftkey-report-shows-australia-is-the-land-of-vice-and-indulgence-20150422-1mqg83.html?stb=twt

The Rise of Emoji on Instagram Is Causing Language Repercussions
http://mobile.nytimes.com/blogs/bits/2015/05/01/the-rise-of-emoji-on-instagram-is-causing-language-repercussions/?_r=0&referrer=

The psychology of emojis
http://thenextweb.com/insider/2015/06/23/the-psychology-of-emojis/

10 Emoji Meanings That Might Surprise You
http://mashable.com/2014/08/15/surprising-emoji-meanings/?utm_cid=mash-com-Tw-main-link#Ow3itCKo1ikI

Drawing icons and emoticons for screens of all sizes
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-09-17/drawing-icons-and-emoticons-for-screens-of-all-sizes

The New Era of Visual Communication
http://recode.net/2015/06/16/the-new-era-of-visual-communication/

“Emoji”: For when words are not enough
http://www.nippon.com/en/features/jg00066/

Emoji diversity: how ‘silly little faces’ can make a big difference
https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/nov/07/emoji-diversity-texting-emojicon-san-francisco

Big talk, small talk: Why People Who Read Should Care About Emojis
http://brooklynrail.org/2015/09/art/big-talk-small-talk-why-people-who-read-should-care-about-emojis

Emoji Tracker
http://emojitracker.com/

Emojipedia: List of emoji meanings
http://emojipedia.org/

Emojli: The emoji-only messenger
App: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/emojli-the-emoji-only-messenger/id911610042
Press: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2740551/App-lets-communicate-using-EMOJIS-launches-usernames-emoticons.html#ixzz3PYsSIw6m

Guess the emoji
App: https://itunes.apple.com/au/app/guess-the-emoji/id698848120?mt=8
Cheat sheet: http://guesstheemoji.org/

Emotional Labour Gmail
App: https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/gmail-emotional-labor/foonnlnklmnakfifejjjfhchclfkgkgh/
Press: http://emotional-labor.email/

If This Selfie Emoji Becomes Official, I Am Going Back To Using A Flip Phone
http://techcrunch.com/2015/08/20/if-this-selfie-emoji-becomes-official-i-am-going-back-to-using-a-flip-phone/

Facebook to Test Emoji as Reaction Icons
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/09/technology/facebook-to-test-emoji-as-reaction-icons.html?smid=tw-share&_r=1

What happens when your mother discovers emojis?
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/may/28/what-happens-when-your-mom-discovers-emojis?CMP=share_btn_fb

Emojis + Hieroglyphics = Universal Language?
http://thisanthrolife.com/archives/2061

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Activism & Care

#IAmAWitness: Apple releases new emoji in partnership with anti-bullying campaign
http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-10-23/apple-releases-new-emoji-designed-to-call-out-cyber-bullies/6879584

‘Abused emojis’ help victims of family violence call for help
http://www.smh.com.au/national/abused-emojis-help-victims-of-family-violence-call-for-help-20150605-ghhtr9.html?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=nc&eid=socialn:twi-13omn1677-edtrl-other:nnn-17/02/2014-edtrs_socialshare-all-nnn-nnn-vars-o&sa=D&usg=ALhdy28zsr6qiq

The Social Media Cure
http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/users/2016/03/how_spoonies_people_with_chronic_illnesses_use_memes_selfies_and_emojis.html?wpsrc=sh_all_tab_tw_ru

Face with Tears of Joy Is Word of the Year: Are Emoji a Sign of Things to Come in Health Care?
http://journals.lww.com/neponline/Fulltext/2016/01000/Face_with_Tears_of_Joy_Is_Word_of_the_Year___Are.15.aspx

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Security & Threats

You could soon use emoji as a passcode
http://mashable.com/2015/06/15/emoji-passcode/#I62RA7oK6Zkk

Can emojis really be used to make terror threats
http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/feb/02/can-emojis-really-be-used-to-make-terror-threats

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Devices

This ad-tech startup mobilizes brands, one emoji keyboard at a time
http://fortune.com/2015/04/21/snaps-mobile-emoji/

Memoji Keyboard
App: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/memoji-keyboard-animate-emojify/id966498482
Press: http://www.memojikeyboard.com/

The Emoji Keyboard
Press: https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/diskcactus/the-emoji-keyboard-type-emoji-on-your-mac/posts/1171799
Kickstarter: https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/diskcactus/the-emoji-keyboard-type-emoji-on-your-mac?ref=nav_search&utm_source=Printstagram&utm_campaign=4d28372374-Emoji+Keyboard&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_0fd1b355fb-4d28372374-27600957

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New emoji

Emoji Candidates
http://unicode.org/emoji/charts/emoji-candidates.html

Emoji Recently Added, v4.0
http://www.unicode.org/emoji/charts/emoji-released.html

At Long Last, The Taco Emoji Has Arrived!
http://www.refinery29.com/2015/06/89339/taco-emoji-is-here

Hold onto your burrito: 37 new emoji are coming to your phone this year
http://mashable.com/2015/06/17/new-emoji-burrito/?utm_cid=mash-com-fb-main-link#Eb.GXo7COskq

At last! Avocado and bacon emojis are coming next year (along with 36 others)
http://metro.co.uk/2015/05/22/at-last-avocado-and-bacon-emojis-are-coming-next-year-along-with-36-others-5209824/

The Metal Horns Emoji is Coming to Smartphones This Summer!
http://www.metalsucks.net/2015/06/19/the-metal-horns-emoji-is-coming-to-smartphones-this-summer/

Apple Releases iOS 8.3 To The Public, It Has New Emoji
http://www.forbes.com/sites/amitchowdhry/2015/04/08/apple-releases-ios-8-3-to-the-public-its-the-update-with-the-new-emojis/?utm_campaign=Forbes&utm_source=TWITTER&utm_medium=social&utm_channel=Technology&linkId=13415893

These Emojis Are Waiting Approval For Mid-2016
http://www.seafm.com.au/goldcoast/scoopla/tech/blog/2015/8/these-emojis-are-waiting-approval-for-mid-2016/

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Branded & Specialized emoji

Ikea Emoticons
Page: http://www.ikea.com/nl/nl/campagne/emoticons.html
Press: http://techcrunch.com/2015/02/11/ikea-does-emoji/

Introji: Emoticons for introverts
Page: https://www.facebook.com/introji
Press: http://www.fastcocreate.com/3042314/attention-introverts-introjis-are-a-series-of-emojis-designed-just-for-you

Tim Hortons serves up more than smiley faces with Canadian-themed ‘ehmoji’ keyboard
http://www.theglobeandmail.com/technology/tim-hortons-serves-up-more-than-smiley-faces-with-canadian-themed-emoji-keyboard/article25128867/?click=sf_globe

Sexy Little Texts: Victoria’s Secret Is Now Offering Lingerie Emojis
Press: http://www.lingerietalk.com/2015/07/24/lingerie-news/sexy-little-texts-victorias-secret-is-now-offering-lingerie-emojis.html
App: https://itunes.apple.com/au/app/victorias-secret-keyboard/id1014981982?mt=8

For when emojis won’t suffice: express yourself with Cindy Sherman-icons!
Page: http://cindysherman-icon.tumblr.com/
Press: http://www.itsnicethat.com/articles/cindy-sherman-emoticons

Pokemon Emojis
http://pokemonemojis.com/

KIMOJI
https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/kimoji/id1068019093?mt=8

The Kingdom of Crying Kim Kardashian
https://theringer.com/kim-kardashian-kimoji-emoji-amber-rose-6db2fdee8b01#.a9klsgrmm

Inside the Company That Makes Emojis for Heidi Klum, Kim Kardashian, and Other Celebrities
http://www.forbes.com/sites/karenhua/2016/11/07/inside-the-company-snaps-that-makes-emojis-for-celebrities-kim-kardashian-heidi-klum-kevin-hart/#30dba0b41ebc

How Kim Kardashian Started the Rise of the Emoji Business
https://hypebeast.com/2016/6/kim-kardashian-kimoji-business

ChyMoji by Blac Chyna
https://itunes.apple.com/sg/app/chymoji-by-blac-chyna/id1103942426?mt=8

Blac Chyna Slaps Kylie Jenner Look-Alike in New Emoji Set
http://www.eonline.com/news/763780/blac-chyna-slaps-kylie-jenner-look-alike-in-new-emoji-set

Braveheart, haggis and thistles: Scots emojis set for app store
https://stv.tv/news/scotland/1344756-haggis-braveheart-and-scotties-as-scotmoji-set-for-mobile-launch/

My Bitmoji, My Better Self
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/04/fashion/my-bitmoji-my-better-self.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=mini-moth®ion=top-stories-below&WT.nav=top-stories-below&_r=1

If Famous Artists Designed Emojis
http://www.buzzfeed.com/crystalro/if-famous-artists-designed-emojis#.myaKpvzZ1

13 Goth Emojis For Everyday Situations
http://www.buzzfeed.com/alexalvarez/this-is-not-a-phase-mom#.xprX5y12Y

16 Characters From Other Languages That Make Great Emoticons
http://mentalfloss.com/article/56495/16-characters-other-languages-make-great-emoticons

SQMOJI
http://www.sgmoji.com/

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Branding & Marketing

Emojis Help Consumers Communicate. So why not brands?
http://unionmetrics.tumblr.com/post/131358036394/emojis-help-consumers-communicate

This is Your Brain on Emojis. Here’s How to Use Them in Your Marketing
https://blog.bufferapp.com/emojis?utm_content=bufferf581c&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer

Emoji At Center Of Bidding Battle Won By Sony Animation; Anthony Leondis To Direct
http://deadline.com/2015/07/emoji-movie-sony-pictures-animation-anthony-leondis-kung-fu-panda-secrets-of-the-masters-1201482768/

Emoji Movie: Sony signs $$$ deal to turn emoticons into film franchise
http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/news/sony-signs–deal-to-turn-emojis-into-movie-franchise-10407437.html

Sony’s Animated Emoji Movie Integrates Spotify, Major Smartphone Apps in Plot (Exclusive)
http://www.thewrap.com/sony-animated-emoji-spotify-smartphone-app/

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Gender & Sexuality

Are female emojis sexist and harmful to girls?
http://edition.cnn.com/2016/03/02/health/female-emojis-stereotypes-likeagirl/

People Who Use Emojis Have More Sex
http://time.com/3694763/match-com-dating-survey-emoji-sex/

Russia could ban same-sex emoji under ‘gay propaganda’ laws
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/01/russia-could-ban-same-sex-emojis-for-promoting?CMP=share_btn_tw

10 Emojis to Send While Sexting
http://www.complex.com/pop-culture/2013/05/10-emojis-to-send-while-sexting/

The Eggplant Emoji Is The Next Frontline Of Online Harassment
http://www.vocativ.com/culture/society/the-eggplant-emoji-is-the-next-frontline-of-online-harassment/

This Couple Communicated Exclusively In Emoji For 30 Days To See If It Would Ruin Their Relationship
http://www.businessinsider.com.au/couple-only-communicates-with-emoji-2014-8

Bride finds a groom – Is this what the new emoji will look like
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/picture-galleries/11813874/Is-this-what-the-new-emoji-will-look-like.html

Vagina emoji are here and they are as spectacular as they are NSFW
http://i100.independent.co.uk/article/vagina-emoji-are-here-and-they-are-as-spectacular-as-they-are-nsfw–Wke0aKX9KDg?cmpid=facebook-post

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Race & Ethnicity

Black Emoji Are Finally Here
http://internet.gawker.com/black-emoji-are-finally-here-1687524251?utm_campaign=socialflow_gawker_twitter&utm_source=gawker_twitter&utm_medium=socialflow

Apple’s new diverse emoji are even more problematic than before
http://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/04/10/how-apples-new-multicultural-emojis-are-more-racist-than-before/

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Politics

Emoji diplomacy? DFAT asked meaning behind Julie Bishop’s use of a red-faced emoji to describe Vladimir Putin
http://www.theage.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/emoji-diplomacy-dfat-asked-meaning-behind-julie-bishops-use-of-a-redfaced-emoji-to-describe-vladimir-putin-20151022-gkfgoc.html

Julie Bishop’s emoji use under scrutiny as Penny Wong asks: why the red face?
http://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2015/oct/22/julie-bishops-emoji-use-under-scrutiny-as-penny-wong-asks-why-the-red-face?CMP=soc_567

Red face under spotlight: Julie Bishop’s all-emoji interview scrutinised by Senate committee
http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-10-22/julie-bishop-emoji-interview-scrutinised-by-senate-committee/6876040

Julie Bishop Describes Serious Diplomatic Relationships With Emoji (Exclusive: World’s first political emoji interview)
http://www.buzzfeed.com/markdistefano/emoji-plomacy#.kxBK4pLYx

State of the union address in emoji
Twitter account: https://twitter.com/emojibama
Full transcript: http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/ng-interactive/2015/jan/20/-sp-state-of-the-union-2015-address-obama-emoji

How Emoji Got to the White House
http://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/how-emoji-got-to-the-white-house?mbid=social_twitter

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Art & Projects

Unicode® Emoji Charts
http://unicode.org/emoji/charts/index.html

EMOJI IRL.LOL.
http://emojiirllol.tumblr.com/

Emoji University
https://twitter.com/emojiuniversity

Emoji portraits by Yung Jake
Press: http://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-trending-30936632
Press: http://uk.businessinsider.com/celebrity-emoji-portraits-instagram-twitter-2015-1?op=1?r=US

Ocean by Michaël Borras A.K.A Systaime
http://fixc.fi/ocean/pages/systaime.html

Untitled gif
https://33.media.tumblr.com/4fb0867b9333428a7722671f346cc7d3/tumblr_nkyihaajms1rpco88o2_r2_540.gif

YOLO Juliet & srsly Hamlet
http://9gag.com/gag/aZx6oM6?ref=mobile

Emotica Online
http://auntiepixelante.com/emotica/

Chevy just put out a press release entirely in emoji — and no one has any idea what it means
http://www.businessinsider.sg/chevy-just-put-out-a-press-release-entirely-in-emoji-2015-6/#.Vfte_GSqqko

Emoji Dick
http://www.emojidick.com/

Emoji Mosaic
http://ericandrewlewis.github.io/emoji-mosaic/

Emoji Sayings
https://twitter.com/emojiidioms_txt

Boring angel (4:17)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qmlJveN9IkI&app=desktop

Emoji among us: The documentary (1:56)
http://www.dissolve.com/showreels/emoji

How we’ll all talk in the future (1:44)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s_F23P7uD1M

Bill Nye explains evolution with emoji (1:51)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PGRRXKek8G0

Someone Finally Stood Up To These Borders & Emojis
http://9gag.com/gag/azjOD3m?ref=mobile

100 Diagrams That Changed the World
Link: http://www.brainpickings.org/2012/12/21/100-diagrams-that-changed-the-world/
Image: http://www.brainpickings.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/100diagramsthatchangedtheworld14.jpg

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