Resources on Emoji and Emoticons

Updated 31 January 2017.
This list is not exhaustive. If you have a suggestion please do comment below.

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ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS ON EMOJI

The semiotics of emoji: The rise of visual language in the age of the internet
http://www.bloomsbury.com/us/the-semiotics-of-emoji-9781474282000/

The conservatism of emoji: Work, affect, and communication
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/2056305115604853?ssource=mfr&rss=1

Emoj(il)literacy: toward a grammar of pictographs
http://siteslab.org/cwcon/2015/proposal/emojilliteracy-toward-grammar-pictographs

“Blissfully happy” or “ready to fight”: Varying Interpretations of Emoji
http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~bhecht/publications/ICWSM2016_emoji.pdf

Characterising the inventive appropriation of emoji as relationally meaningful in mediated close personal relationships
http://opus.bath.ac.uk/46780/

Exploring the use of emoji as a visual research method for eliciting young children’s voices in childhood research
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03004430.2016.1219730?journalCode=gecd20

Use of emoticon and emoji in tweets for food-related emotional expression
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950329315300173

I can haz more science emoji? Host of nerd icons proposed.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27853226 

Using emoji pictures to strengthen the immunity of passwords against attackers
http://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/viewFile/6360/6111

Instagrammatics and digital methods: studying visual social media, from selfies and GIFs to memes and emoji
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/22041451.2016.1155332?journalCode=rcrp20

Can emoji be used as a direct method to measure emotional associations to food names? Preliminary investigations with consumers in USA and China
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950329316301781 

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ACADEMIC PUBLICATIONS ON EMOTICONS

Emotional Expression Online: Gender Differences in Emoticon Use
http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/10949310050191809

MoodLens: an emoticon-based sentiment analysis system for chinese tweets
http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2339772

Emoticon Smoothed Language Models for Twitter Sentiment Analysis
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3898/03c46aaf1285a720ad115bac2a6d1aa7464d.pdf

A longitudinal study of emoticon use in text messaging from smartphones
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0747563211002561

Emoticon Style: Interpreting Differences in Emoticons Across Cultures
http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/40936445/6132-30395-1-PB.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1484899293&Signature=Cm4pY37NSVNAMILULCEPFa8yTJ0%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DEmoticon_Style_Interpreting_Differences.pdf 

CAO: A Fully Automatic Emoticon Analysis System Based on Theory of Kinesics
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5520657/?reload=true

Emoticon-based text steganography in chat
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5406559/

Emoticon Usage in Task-Oriented and Socio-Emotional Contexts in Online Discussion Boards
http://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/islandora/object/fsu%3A168827/

Emotional Expression Online: the Impact of Task, Relationship and Personality Perception on Emoticon Usage in Instant Messenger
http://aisel.aisnet.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1080&context=pacis2007

Emoticon Recommendation for Japanese Computer-Mediated Communication
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/6693490/

Microblog sentiment analysis with emoticon space model
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-45558-6_7#page-1 

Can We Read Emotions from a Smiley Face? Emoticon-based Distant Supervision for Subjectivity and Sentiment Analysis of Arabic Twitter Feeds
http://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/35794475/ES3LOD-final-submitted.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAJ56TQJRTWSMTNPEA&Expires=1484900098&Signature=2SzSHmexJIDnBQxV%2BXX40dFD73Y%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DCan_We_Read_Emotions_from_a_Smiley_Face.pdf

Emoticon use Increases Plain Milk and Vegetable Purchase in a School Cafeteria without Adversely Affecting Total Milk Purchase
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014929181500956X 

Emoticon convergence in Internet chat rooms
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10350330.2012.739000

From emoticon to universal symbolic signs: Can written language survive in cyberspace?
http://bernstein.iicm.tugraz.at:8080/Ressourcen/Papers/microlearning_2007.pdf

A Pragmatic Investigation of Emoticon Use in Nonnative /Native Speaker Text Chat
http://www.languageatinternet.org/articles/2014/vandergriff/ 

Patterns of Emoticon Usage in ESL Students’ Discussion Forum Writing
http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/calicojournal.29.4.694.pdf?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

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Discourse

Don’t know the difference between emoji and emoticons
http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/feb/06/difference-between-emoji-and-emoticons-explained

The Conservatism of Emoji
http://thenewinquiry.com/essays/the-conservatism-of-emoji/

Emoji Epistemology
https://wishcrys.com/2015/01/24/emoji-epistemology/

Is an Emoji Worth 1,000 Words?
https://www.themarshallproject.org/2015/02/02/is-an-emoji-worth-1-000-words?ref=hp-1-111

Emoji is dragging us back to the dark ages – and all we can do is smile
http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/jonathanjonesblog/2015/may/27/emoji-language-dragging-us-back-to-the-dark-ages-yellow-smiley-face?CMP=fb_gu

We’re all using these emoji wrong
http://www.wired.com/2015/05/using-emoji-wrong/?mbid=social_fb

Emojineering Part 1: Machine Learning for Emoji Trends
http://instagram-engineering.tumblr.com/post/117889701472/emojineering-part-1-machine-learning-for-emoji

Lost In Emoji Translation: Apple vs. Android
https://medium.com/matter/lost-in-emoji-translation-apple-vs-android-648fdd57ca25?section=suggested

Emoji: SwiftKey report shows Australia is ‘the land of vice and indulgence’
http://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/life/emoji-swiftkey-report-shows-australia-is-the-land-of-vice-and-indulgence-20150422-1mqg83.html?stb=twt

The Rise of Emoji on Instagram Is Causing Language Repercussions
http://mobile.nytimes.com/blogs/bits/2015/05/01/the-rise-of-emoji-on-instagram-is-causing-language-repercussions/?_r=0&referrer=

The psychology of emojis
http://thenextweb.com/insider/2015/06/23/the-psychology-of-emojis/

10 Emoji Meanings That Might Surprise You
http://mashable.com/2014/08/15/surprising-emoji-meanings/?utm_cid=mash-com-Tw-main-link#Ow3itCKo1ikI

Drawing icons and emoticons for screens of all sizes
http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-09-17/drawing-icons-and-emoticons-for-screens-of-all-sizes

The New Era of Visual Communication
http://recode.net/2015/06/16/the-new-era-of-visual-communication/

“Emoji”: For when words are not enough
http://www.nippon.com/en/features/jg00066/

Emoji diversity: how ‘silly little faces’ can make a big difference
https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/nov/07/emoji-diversity-texting-emojicon-san-francisco

Big talk, small talk: Why People Who Read Should Care About Emojis
http://brooklynrail.org/2015/09/art/big-talk-small-talk-why-people-who-read-should-care-about-emojis

Emoji Tracker
http://emojitracker.com/

Emojipedia: List of emoji meanings
http://emojipedia.org/

Emojli: The emoji-only messenger
App: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/emojli-the-emoji-only-messenger/id911610042
Press: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2740551/App-lets-communicate-using-EMOJIS-launches-usernames-emoticons.html#ixzz3PYsSIw6m

Guess the emoji
App: https://itunes.apple.com/au/app/guess-the-emoji/id698848120?mt=8
Cheat sheet: http://guesstheemoji.org/

Emotional Labour Gmail
App: https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/gmail-emotional-labor/foonnlnklmnakfifejjjfhchclfkgkgh/
Press: http://emotional-labor.email/

If This Selfie Emoji Becomes Official, I Am Going Back To Using A Flip Phone
http://techcrunch.com/2015/08/20/if-this-selfie-emoji-becomes-official-i-am-going-back-to-using-a-flip-phone/

Facebook to Test Emoji as Reaction Icons
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/09/technology/facebook-to-test-emoji-as-reaction-icons.html?smid=tw-share&_r=1

What happens when your mother discovers emojis?
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/may/28/what-happens-when-your-mom-discovers-emojis?CMP=share_btn_fb

Emojis + Hieroglyphics = Universal Language?
http://thisanthrolife.com/archives/2061

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Activism & Care

#IAmAWitness: Apple releases new emoji in partnership with anti-bullying campaign
http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-10-23/apple-releases-new-emoji-designed-to-call-out-cyber-bullies/6879584

‘Abused emojis’ help victims of family violence call for help
http://www.smh.com.au/national/abused-emojis-help-victims-of-family-violence-call-for-help-20150605-ghhtr9.html?utm_source=twitter&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=nc&eid=socialn:twi-13omn1677-edtrl-other:nnn-17/02/2014-edtrs_socialshare-all-nnn-nnn-vars-o&sa=D&usg=ALhdy28zsr6qiq

The Social Media Cure
http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/users/2016/03/how_spoonies_people_with_chronic_illnesses_use_memes_selfies_and_emojis.html?wpsrc=sh_all_tab_tw_ru

Face with Tears of Joy Is Word of the Year: Are Emoji a Sign of Things to Come in Health Care?
http://journals.lww.com/neponline/Fulltext/2016/01000/Face_with_Tears_of_Joy_Is_Word_of_the_Year___Are.15.aspx

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Security & Threats

You could soon use emoji as a passcode
http://mashable.com/2015/06/15/emoji-passcode/#I62RA7oK6Zkk

Can emojis really be used to make terror threats
http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/feb/02/can-emojis-really-be-used-to-make-terror-threats

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Devices

This ad-tech startup mobilizes brands, one emoji keyboard at a time
http://fortune.com/2015/04/21/snaps-mobile-emoji/

Memoji Keyboard
App: https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/memoji-keyboard-animate-emojify/id966498482
Press: http://www.memojikeyboard.com/

The Emoji Keyboard
Press: https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/diskcactus/the-emoji-keyboard-type-emoji-on-your-mac/posts/1171799
Kickstarter: https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/diskcactus/the-emoji-keyboard-type-emoji-on-your-mac?ref=nav_search&utm_source=Printstagram&utm_campaign=4d28372374-Emoji+Keyboard&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_0fd1b355fb-4d28372374-27600957

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New emoji

Emoji Candidates
http://unicode.org/emoji/charts/emoji-candidates.html

Emoji Recently Added, v4.0
http://www.unicode.org/emoji/charts/emoji-released.html

At Long Last, The Taco Emoji Has Arrived!
http://www.refinery29.com/2015/06/89339/taco-emoji-is-here

Hold onto your burrito: 37 new emoji are coming to your phone this year
http://mashable.com/2015/06/17/new-emoji-burrito/?utm_cid=mash-com-fb-main-link#Eb.GXo7COskq

At last! Avocado and bacon emojis are coming next year (along with 36 others)
http://metro.co.uk/2015/05/22/at-last-avocado-and-bacon-emojis-are-coming-next-year-along-with-36-others-5209824/

The Metal Horns Emoji is Coming to Smartphones This Summer!
http://www.metalsucks.net/2015/06/19/the-metal-horns-emoji-is-coming-to-smartphones-this-summer/

Apple Releases iOS 8.3 To The Public, It Has New Emoji
http://www.forbes.com/sites/amitchowdhry/2015/04/08/apple-releases-ios-8-3-to-the-public-its-the-update-with-the-new-emojis/?utm_campaign=Forbes&utm_source=TWITTER&utm_medium=social&utm_channel=Technology&linkId=13415893

These Emojis Are Waiting Approval For Mid-2016
http://www.seafm.com.au/goldcoast/scoopla/tech/blog/2015/8/these-emojis-are-waiting-approval-for-mid-2016/

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Branded & Specialized emoji

Ikea Emoticons
Page: http://www.ikea.com/nl/nl/campagne/emoticons.html
Press: http://techcrunch.com/2015/02/11/ikea-does-emoji/

Introji: Emoticons for introverts
Page: https://www.facebook.com/introji
Press: http://www.fastcocreate.com/3042314/attention-introverts-introjis-are-a-series-of-emojis-designed-just-for-you

Tim Hortons serves up more than smiley faces with Canadian-themed ‘ehmoji’ keyboard
http://www.theglobeandmail.com/technology/tim-hortons-serves-up-more-than-smiley-faces-with-canadian-themed-emoji-keyboard/article25128867/?click=sf_globe

Sexy Little Texts: Victoria’s Secret Is Now Offering Lingerie Emojis
Press: http://www.lingerietalk.com/2015/07/24/lingerie-news/sexy-little-texts-victorias-secret-is-now-offering-lingerie-emojis.html
App: https://itunes.apple.com/au/app/victorias-secret-keyboard/id1014981982?mt=8

For when emojis won’t suffice: express yourself with Cindy Sherman-icons!
Page: http://cindysherman-icon.tumblr.com/
Press: http://www.itsnicethat.com/articles/cindy-sherman-emoticons

Pokemon Emojis
http://pokemonemojis.com/

KIMOJI
https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/kimoji/id1068019093?mt=8

The Kingdom of Crying Kim Kardashian
https://theringer.com/kim-kardashian-kimoji-emoji-amber-rose-6db2fdee8b01#.a9klsgrmm

Inside the Company That Makes Emojis for Heidi Klum, Kim Kardashian, and Other Celebrities
http://www.forbes.com/sites/karenhua/2016/11/07/inside-the-company-snaps-that-makes-emojis-for-celebrities-kim-kardashian-heidi-klum-kevin-hart/#30dba0b41ebc

How Kim Kardashian Started the Rise of the Emoji Business
https://hypebeast.com/2016/6/kim-kardashian-kimoji-business

ChyMoji by Blac Chyna
https://itunes.apple.com/sg/app/chymoji-by-blac-chyna/id1103942426?mt=8

Blac Chyna Slaps Kylie Jenner Look-Alike in New Emoji Set
http://www.eonline.com/news/763780/blac-chyna-slaps-kylie-jenner-look-alike-in-new-emoji-set

Braveheart, haggis and thistles: Scots emojis set for app store
https://stv.tv/news/scotland/1344756-haggis-braveheart-and-scotties-as-scotmoji-set-for-mobile-launch/

My Bitmoji, My Better Self
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/04/fashion/my-bitmoji-my-better-self.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=mini-moth®ion=top-stories-below&WT.nav=top-stories-below&_r=1

If Famous Artists Designed Emojis
http://www.buzzfeed.com/crystalro/if-famous-artists-designed-emojis#.myaKpvzZ1

13 Goth Emojis For Everyday Situations
http://www.buzzfeed.com/alexalvarez/this-is-not-a-phase-mom#.xprX5y12Y

16 Characters From Other Languages That Make Great Emoticons
http://mentalfloss.com/article/56495/16-characters-other-languages-make-great-emoticons

SQMOJI
http://www.sgmoji.com/

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Branding & Marketing

Emojis Help Consumers Communicate. So why not brands?
http://unionmetrics.tumblr.com/post/131358036394/emojis-help-consumers-communicate

This is Your Brain on Emojis. Here’s How to Use Them in Your Marketing
https://blog.bufferapp.com/emojis?utm_content=bufferf581c&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer

Emoji At Center Of Bidding Battle Won By Sony Animation; Anthony Leondis To Direct
http://deadline.com/2015/07/emoji-movie-sony-pictures-animation-anthony-leondis-kung-fu-panda-secrets-of-the-masters-1201482768/

Emoji Movie: Sony signs $$$ deal to turn emoticons into film franchise
http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/news/sony-signs–deal-to-turn-emojis-into-movie-franchise-10407437.html

Sony’s Animated Emoji Movie Integrates Spotify, Major Smartphone Apps in Plot (Exclusive)
http://www.thewrap.com/sony-animated-emoji-spotify-smartphone-app/

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Gender & Sexuality

Are female emojis sexist and harmful to girls?
http://edition.cnn.com/2016/03/02/health/female-emojis-stereotypes-likeagirl/

People Who Use Emojis Have More Sex
http://time.com/3694763/match-com-dating-survey-emoji-sex/

Russia could ban same-sex emoji under ‘gay propaganda’ laws
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/01/russia-could-ban-same-sex-emojis-for-promoting?CMP=share_btn_tw

10 Emojis to Send While Sexting
http://www.complex.com/pop-culture/2013/05/10-emojis-to-send-while-sexting/

The Eggplant Emoji Is The Next Frontline Of Online Harassment
http://www.vocativ.com/culture/society/the-eggplant-emoji-is-the-next-frontline-of-online-harassment/

This Couple Communicated Exclusively In Emoji For 30 Days To See If It Would Ruin Their Relationship
http://www.businessinsider.com.au/couple-only-communicates-with-emoji-2014-8

Bride finds a groom – Is this what the new emoji will look like
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/picture-galleries/11813874/Is-this-what-the-new-emoji-will-look-like.html

Vagina emoji are here and they are as spectacular as they are NSFW
http://i100.independent.co.uk/article/vagina-emoji-are-here-and-they-are-as-spectacular-as-they-are-nsfw–Wke0aKX9KDg?cmpid=facebook-post

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Race & Ethnicity

Black Emoji Are Finally Here
http://internet.gawker.com/black-emoji-are-finally-here-1687524251?utm_campaign=socialflow_gawker_twitter&utm_source=gawker_twitter&utm_medium=socialflow

Apple’s new diverse emoji are even more problematic than before
http://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2015/04/10/how-apples-new-multicultural-emojis-are-more-racist-than-before/

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Politics

Emoji diplomacy? DFAT asked meaning behind Julie Bishop’s use of a red-faced emoji to describe Vladimir Putin
http://www.theage.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/emoji-diplomacy-dfat-asked-meaning-behind-julie-bishops-use-of-a-redfaced-emoji-to-describe-vladimir-putin-20151022-gkfgoc.html

Julie Bishop’s emoji use under scrutiny as Penny Wong asks: why the red face?
http://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2015/oct/22/julie-bishops-emoji-use-under-scrutiny-as-penny-wong-asks-why-the-red-face?CMP=soc_567

Red face under spotlight: Julie Bishop’s all-emoji interview scrutinised by Senate committee
http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-10-22/julie-bishop-emoji-interview-scrutinised-by-senate-committee/6876040

Julie Bishop Describes Serious Diplomatic Relationships With Emoji (Exclusive: World’s first political emoji interview)
http://www.buzzfeed.com/markdistefano/emoji-plomacy#.kxBK4pLYx

State of the union address in emoji
Twitter account: https://twitter.com/emojibama
Full transcript: http://www.theguardian.com/us-news/ng-interactive/2015/jan/20/-sp-state-of-the-union-2015-address-obama-emoji

How Emoji Got to the White House
http://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/how-emoji-got-to-the-white-house?mbid=social_twitter

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Art & Projects

Unicode® Emoji Charts
http://unicode.org/emoji/charts/index.html

EMOJI IRL.LOL.
http://emojiirllol.tumblr.com/

Emoji University
https://twitter.com/emojiuniversity

Emoji portraits by Yung Jake
Press: http://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-trending-30936632
Press: http://uk.businessinsider.com/celebrity-emoji-portraits-instagram-twitter-2015-1?op=1?r=US

Ocean by Michaël Borras A.K.A Systaime
http://fixc.fi/ocean/pages/systaime.html

Untitled gif
https://33.media.tumblr.com/4fb0867b9333428a7722671f346cc7d3/tumblr_nkyihaajms1rpco88o2_r2_540.gif

YOLO Juliet & srsly Hamlet
http://9gag.com/gag/aZx6oM6?ref=mobile

Emotica Online
http://auntiepixelante.com/emotica/

Chevy just put out a press release entirely in emoji — and no one has any idea what it means
http://www.businessinsider.sg/chevy-just-put-out-a-press-release-entirely-in-emoji-2015-6/#.Vfte_GSqqko

Emoji Dick
http://www.emojidick.com/

Emoji Mosaic
http://ericandrewlewis.github.io/emoji-mosaic/

Emoji Sayings
https://twitter.com/emojiidioms_txt

Boring angel (4:17)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qmlJveN9IkI&app=desktop

Emoji among us: The documentary (1:56)
http://www.dissolve.com/showreels/emoji

How we’ll all talk in the future (1:44)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s_F23P7uD1M

Bill Nye explains evolution with emoji (1:51)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PGRRXKek8G0

Someone Finally Stood Up To These Borders & Emojis
http://9gag.com/gag/azjOD3m?ref=mobile

100 Diagrams That Changed the World
Link: http://www.brainpickings.org/2012/12/21/100-diagrams-that-changed-the-world/
Image: http://www.brainpickings.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/100diagramsthatchangedtheworld14.jpg

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