Micro-microcelebrity: Famous Babies and Business on the Internet

Ten years ago, as a teenager in junior college, I often heard my peers exchanging updates of what a group of girls had recently purchased, worn or experienced. They could recall the names of their boyfriends, the restaurants they’d been to over the weekend, and details of their latest fashion purchases. I soon learned that these girls did not go to my college, nor were they friends of my peers. In fact, my peers had never met these girls in the flesh; they were simply bloggers writing about their lives on the internet. The allure of such bloggers and the intimacies their followers expressed towards them and among each other intrigued me so much, that, when I became an anthropologist later on in life, I made these internet personalities the focus of my research.

Continue reading Micro-microcelebrity: Famous Babies and Business on the Internet

A few shifts in the Influencer industry

Today, Instagram decided to introduce “Stories“. Admittedly a copy of Snapchat’s Stories, Instagram writes:

With Instagram Stories, you don’t have to worry about overposting. Instead, you can share as much as you want throughout the day — with as much creativity as you want. […]

Instagram has always been a place to share the moments you want to remember. Now you can share your highlights and everything in between, too.

This signals two things to me:

1) The curation rhetoric of Instagram as a regulated repository with optimum posting times and frequencies to maximize viewer perception is being acknowledged. Instagram wants us to break out of this normative practice popularized by its top Influencer Instagrammers so that more content will be shared more frequently.

2) The curation rhetoric of Instagram as a highlight reel for only one’s “best images” is being acknowledged. Instagram wants us to contentdump on its platform instead of cross-platforming (over to Snapchat!) to post our mass of “non-Insta worthy” frivolous content.

I have some thoughts.

As some of you know, I am an anthropologist whose expertise is on the Influencer industry (see publications here and blog here). Conceptually, predecessors of Influencers were first framed as “microcelebrities” by media scholar Theresa Senft. In the social media industry, Influencers have been branded “creatives”, “digital consultants”, “content producers”, and “taste makers”, among a growing lexicon. Popular press seem to prefer “social media celebrities”, “internet stars”, or platform specific designations such as “bloggers”, “Instagrammers”, “YouTubers”, and “Viners” (for some reason, “Twitterers” and “Facebookers” never took off. Pro-tip to startup founders: Ease of pronunciation is crucial).

While taking some notes for a project on Influencer lexicon this morning, I quickly jotted down some observations on a few recent shifts in the industry. Before I write this all up for a journal article (and again, at the risk of fellow scholars telling me to guard my pre-publication material more closely because PLEASE DO NOT STEAL™), here are some brief thoughts.

Note: My current monograph project focuses specifically on lifestyle Influencers in Singapore. However, I believe these trends may apply to the Influencer industry and social media economy more broadly. I’d love to hear your thoughts if the areas in which you’re working reflect different trends. Please do beep!

From Archive Culture to Streaming Culture

We’re moving from a culture of pristine archiving to one of haphazard streaming. While tasteful, luxurious feeds (Bourdieu 1979Veblen 1899) peaked on “repository format” social media such as blogs and Instagram, the aesthetic of spontaneous snippets on-the-go or unfiltered continuous webcasting has taken over on “transient format” social media such as Snapchat, Periscope, and Twitch.

This is largely motivated by followers’ cultivation of perpetual FOMO, or the fear of missing out. The attention economy (Goldhaber 1997) is a system in which content is in abundance but consumers’ attention spans are limited. In other words, attention becomes a scarce resource for which to be competed in a “war of eyeballs” (Abidin 2014).

While repository social media is more permanent and allow followers to return to the material at their own pace and time, transient social media is ephemeral and demand that followers assign it full attention in the narrow window during which it is available for view. Thus, the attention invested by followers is increasingly “voluntary”, “front-of-mind” and “attractive” as opposed to “captive”, “back-of-mind”, and “aversive” (Davenport & Beck 2011)

From Tasteful Consumption to Amateur Aesthetic

In the wake of conscientiously maintained luxury feeds, the accessibility once promised by the rise of microcelebrities is being eroded as their practice and persona appear more unattainable due to barriers of entry such as cost, social capital, or cultural capital.

The live moving image affordance of Periscope and Twitch that allow for little modification and “photoshopping”, or the basic editing affordance of Snapchat that restricts modification to pre-set filters, stickers, and scribbles (pre-Stories) has privileged an “amateur aesthetic” over the previous peak of “tasteful consumption”.

In a paper currently under review, I coin “calibrated amateurism” to describe “a practice and aesthetic in which an attention economy focuses specifically on crafting contrived authenticity that portrays the raw aesthetic of an amateur, by relying on the performance ecology of appropriate platforms, affordances, tools, cultural vernacular, and social capital. When orchestrated conscientiously, calibrated amateurism may give the impression of spontaneity and unfilteredness despite the contrary reality”.

The aesthetic of calibrated amateurism has a leveling effect because Influencers appear less constructed, less filtered, more spontaneous, and more raw. This fosters feelings of “relatability”, and specifically notions of “authenticity”. I’d previously described the “relatability” framework here and made mentions of it in an article here. In brief, among other mechanisms of assessment, “authenticity” is gauged by “how genuine an Influencer’s actual lifestyle and sentiment is”. The amateur aesthetic thus gives the impression that followers are able to enter the “backstage” (Goffman 1956), behind contrived performances (MacCannell 1973), to evaluate Influencers for themselves.

From Platform Microcelebrity to Cross-platform Influencer

Microcelebrities used to dominate on specific platforms, whether they started out on blogs (most often OpenDiary, LiveJournal, and Blogger), Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, or Vine. As various social media peak and trough in various economies, most microcelebrities ended up maintaining several digital estates in which each social media may be curated for specific content and reasons.

Advertisers have also contributed to the rise of cross-platforming in a bid to capture a larger audience via digital media more generally. Social media companies who manage Influencers and pitch them to clients have also been marketing “packages” in which one campaign is marketed across various platforms to “cross-traffic” and for higher audience circulation. (See how this is done on Instagram here). Generally, advertisers still prefer to be able to track metrics from archivable content in repository social media, but understand the need to capture audiences emerging on transient social media. As a result, cross-platforming Influencers are becoming a norm, requiring Influencers to manage the distinct platform affordances and the cultural norms of each space, their respective dominant Influencers, and their mass of followers.

In a paper on commercial selfies, I described how Influencers curated and published different types of selfies for various social media. For instance, Instagram selfies are the most tasteful and carefully curated to represent one’s ideal persona and “best face”; Twitter selfies are other carefully curated shots that did not make the cut for Instagram; while Snapchat selfies are intentionally ugly faces, posed outtakes, and humorous captures to interact more casually with followers and to give the impression of fun. In other words, followers who loyally track Influencers across platforms will be able to consume three versions of one selfie, which hopefully paint three corroborative facets of an Influencer’s relatable persona for consumption (Abidin 2016).

From Attention Economy to Affection Economy

When Twitter turned its “stars” into “hearts” and “favs” into “likes”, I wanted to pen two posts:

1) Semiotics, symbolism, and sanity: Why seeing the heart emoji next to particular Twitter handles when they like my Tweets is ruining me.

2) Assemblage, affect, and anxiety: Why reading freakouts on Twitter over said heart emoji brings comfort because camaraderie.

Well those didn’t eventuate because of reasons, but some of the ideas from then are still stuck with me. In its formal announcement, Twitter writes:

“The heart, in contrast, is a universal symbol that resonates across languages, cultures, and time zones. The heart is more expressive, enabling you to convey a range of emotions and easily connect with people. And in our tests, we found that people loved it.”

Just as Twitter attempted the Stars -> Hearts, Favs -> Likes, I feel the Influencer industry is changing from an Attention Economy to an Affection Economy. Mainstream, traditional (Hollywood?) celebrities are meant to personify a product endorsement (when I think of George Clooney, I think of Nespresso, and vice versa. You too, right? Right?! How successful has this been? Well, do not steal!). For Influencers, advertised products are malleable and packaged to personify their microcelebrity persona (i.e. I love this Influencer and will buy all the things she markets). In other words, the personal brand of the Influencer takes precedence over the corporate brands of the products and services they sell. This is crucial.

Unlike traditional celebrity with their occasional million-dollar endorsements, Influencers depend on a constant stream of smaller sponsored posts, appearances, and endorsements for income. Unlike traditional celebrity who have the capital to commit to just one brand in their lifetime, Influencers have to be savvy and malleable enough to take on several brands consecutively, after they have waited out their “competitor ban” time period (most brands will contractually not allow Influencers to advertise for competitors for a 6-12 month window).

As a result, it pays to cultivate the self as brand and market products through the lens of one’s persona, rather than promote products via a corporation’s philosophy. (Kevin Roberts, CEO of the advertising agency Saatchi & Saatchi, has written about endearing to corporation brands as “Lovemarks“). This is why it is important that clients allow Influencers to personalize and write their own advertorials in their own voice. This is also why such forms of advertorials are especially successful among Influencers in the lifestyle genre, for whom their everyday activities and practices form the backbone of their published content. In other words, it is their lifestyles that are out there on display, for sale, and for emulation. What Influencers are peddling, then, is an economy of affect alongside one of attention.

From Transparent Metrics to Mystified Impact

Finally, with the obscurity of user metrics on Snapchat, I reckon we will shift from transparent metrics to mystified impact. Pre-Snapchat and pre-analytics from Google, Twitter, and Instagram, Influencers’ metrics were self-reported and difficult to verify, apart from one’s follower/following measure displayed on a public profile.

When platform analytics were made freely available, these numbers could be verified privately on the back-end and presented to clients during pitches. As Influencers saturated the industry and clients experienced choice paralysis, Influencers and their managers began to publicize these back-end metrics on their social media profiles or databases.

However, with the obscurity of Snapchat metrics (some third party tools notwithstanding), Influencers now seem to be grappling with quantifiable impact again. Many Influencers on Snapchat have taken to posting screengrabs of how many times each of their stories has been viewed or screenshot. This is a laborious endeavour considering that stories and their attached metrics are only available for 24 hours, and that Influencers publish multiple stories, several times a day, around the clock. This could be an effort to visibilize their impact and quantify their standing on a platform that is still relatively new for advertisers.

Yet, other Influencers have returned to mystifying their impact, shunning quantifiable data for qualitative anecdotes. Alongside Influencers removing quantified stats on their profiles, I have observed several Influencers posting screengrabs of conversations or feedback with their clients and managers. Some of these are as informal as WhatsApp text messages or Direct Messages on various platforms, while others are ad verbatim testimonials on reports churned out by Influencer management companies. We now seem to be reiterating “networked narratives” and “word-of-mouth” selling (Kozinets et al. 2010). Perhaps as the industry has saturated and professionalized so quickly since it first began in 2005 in Singapore, a group of Influencers is beginning to opt out of quantitative data cultures and reverting yardsticks to the informal testimonials that garnered them microcelebrity in the first place.

Any thoughts?

PS: I used the kitty cat as the header image because everyone knows the internet is made of cats. And because cute clickbait.

#thoughtsandprayers, Grief hype-jacking, and Saturation fatigue

It’s been an agonising series of weeks after a string of grievous events in various parts of the world. While I have been tracing vernacular responses to global grieving events on Instagram since 2014 – some of the case studies are archived here – this has been difficult to do of late between my personal loss and the onslaught of public grieving. Self-care first, right?

Of late, global tributes on trending hashtags have been featuring a more prominent disdain for, rejection of, and critique on public grieving in memes and thoughts&prayers en masse.



In this post, I trace the #thoughtsandprayers hashtag on Instagram and the content posted for a ten-day period between 10 July 2016 and 19 July 2016. Screengrabs were taken on 19 July 2016, 1700hrs, GMT+8.


As the site of the most recent tragedy, #PrayForNice featured prominently on the #thoughtsandprayers stream.

Many of these tributes were similar to those from #PorteOuverte in November 2015.

Other recent events were also on the stream, such as the Baton Rouge shootings,


the Istanbul attacks,

and the Orlando massacre.

Public grieving

Similar to the emblems catalogued in earlier #PrayForX streams, #thoughtsandprayers featured users adopting celebrity icons to promote their cause,

sharing inspirational messages,

and documenting symbols of solidarity such as remixed cartoons, posters, religious statues, and allusions to loss.

Publicity grieving

Although there was less evidence of overt spam and self-promotional material on #thoughtsandprayers as compared to the earlier #PrayForX streams, some users who were expressing grief and support still used selfies usually unrelated to the event, carefully postured artful poses of themselves, and throwback holiday photographs of affected sites to signpost their solidarity.

Saturation and Satire

Above all, saturation fatigue regarding the newest onslaught of passive “internet solidarity” and satirical remixes of #thoughtsandprayers were displayed in brilliant comics.

At times, users adopted the persona of a higher power/presence to portray angry or humorous responses.

Some users adopted the #firstworldproblems approach to expose the casualness and frivolity at which people were jumping on the #thoughts&prayers bandwagon.

Other users simply displayed their outright rejection of users sprouting #thoughtsandprayers on social media, alluding to a displaced sense of pseudo-activism, and inflated impression of aid, and a general ineffectiveness despite participation in a highly visible and populist activity that still promotes passive solidarity from a distance.

A handful of users mobilised #thoughtsandprayers as a meme to shed light on ineffective political governance and leadership, and the cyclic routine of public grieving.

Critical irony

Speaking of memes, users are also using #thoughtsandprayers in an ironic manner to display contempt for developments in politics, and in a humorous manner to express tongue-in-cheek suggestions to better the state of political participation.

Personal grief

Global grief events aside, a small pool of users use #thoughtsandprayers sincerely when posting about personal loss or hardship. Although these images are publicly-accessible on the #thoughtsandprayers stream on Instagram, it was not immediately clear if these users intended for their images to circulate in the mass outpour of grief and signposting of solidarity. Because the content of their images seemed personal, I have pixelated the faces featured. Interestingly, the only four examples of this during the period I tracked exclusively featured children.

Grief hype-jacking

Based on my work on global grief events, I have developed a register of visual tropes most viable for social media virality during social movements, or what I term a “grief aesthetic” on Instagram. The most prominent of these include national landmarks of cultural significance to the grief event, emblems borrowed and redesigned from a lexicon of political statements such as coloured ribbons, and #PrayForX typography. (full paper to come)

The concepts of “public grieving” and “publicity grieving” are based on my recent talks at the Asia Research Institute (ARI) and Tembusu College this March. (See event archives here:  Homo Sapiens, Mortality and the Internet in Contemporary Asia Tembusu STS Seminar: Reflections and Discussion.) In particular, my paper for the ARI workshop, “Human failure for $how: Influencers, empathetic reciprocity, and commodified grief”, has been commissioned for a journal article and a book chapter.

In these works and at AoIR2016 this October, I will be exploring the shift from “public grieving” to “publicity grieving” and introducing the phenomenon of “grief hype-jacking”:

While the “grief aesthetic” elements on Instagram have emerged as vernacular norms of acceptable “public grieving” visibility practices, some users tap into this global current of attention in less palatable ways.

In “public grieving”, users sincerely partake in a global expression, narrative, and dialogue of a grief event through the use of high visibility trending hashtags.

But in “publicity grieving”, users opportunistically harness the attention currency of high visibility trending hashtags to promote themselves (i.e. to invite ‘likes’ or ‘followers’), their brand (i.e. to improve their public persona, especially for Influencers), or their wares (i.e. to market a product or service through product placement, advertorials, or spam).

I term this phenomenon of bandwagoning on public tributes and high visibility hashtags “grief hype-jacking”, as users wrestle to (mis)appropriate highly public channels of collective grief for self-publicity. Perhaps it is for this reason that the backlash against #PrayForX and #thoughtsandprayers memes has been growing.

More on “grief aesthetics” and practices of “grief hype-jacking” another time.

How do you feel about public grieving and publicity grieving in response to global tragedy? Have you experienced saturation fatigue yourself? What other things have you noticed about the rampant use of thoughts&prayers?

Feel free to beep or write to me.

Over and out,

Instagram reacts to the Brussels attacks.

A quick thematic capture of the emergent vernacular responses to the attacks in Brussels on Instagram, via the #Brussels and #Bruxelles hashtags, at 8 hours post-attacks. Screengrabs captured on March 22, 2016, 2220hrs, GMT+8.

1) Tin Tin as a “symbol of solidarity“.


2) The Manneken Pis responds with “piss and love”.


3) Other grieving geographies respond with empathy.


4) National colours are on display.


5) Artworks abound.


6) And in usual ‘grief hype-jacking’* fashion, spam and commercial advertising creep in.


*conceptual paper on ‘grief hype-jacking’ in progress. 

See also Instagram during
#JeSuisAhmed and #CharlieHedbo,
and #OccupyCentral.

Over and out,

The First Hour Post-#JakartaBlasts on Instagram.

On 14 January 2016 at 1155hrs (GMT+8), the first of several bomb blasts (and later, gun battles on the street) took place in Jakarta outside a Starbucks coffee shop in Sarinah, Thamrin, Jakarta.

(Rolling report from The Guardian here. Timeline of “extremist attacks” in Indonesia here.)

Although international news outlets are now (2300hrs, GMT+8) mainstreaming the “#JakartaBlasts” hashtag on Twitter, in the very earliest hour, vernacular emergence of hashtags on Instagram differed.

I track the initial hashtags that emerged on Instagram from (primarily) Indonesian users (based on brief user bios, language used, and context given) between 1200hrs and 1330hrs, and handcode the earliest Instagram posts.

Screenshots taken from public Instagram hashtag streams on 14 January 2016, 1300hrs, GMT+8.



The first hashtags that emerged were the usual social movement tropes in the form of #PrayForX and the #Locale of the incident. #PrayForJakarta and #PrayForIndonesia debuted alongside #Sarinah and #SarinahThamrin.

The next were #JagaJakarta (take care Jakarta), #SaveJakarta, #StaySafeJakarta, and #SaveIndonesia.

#KamiTidakTakut (I am not afraid), #JakartaUnderAttack, and #DoaUntukJakarta (pray for Jakarta) were the last to emerge in the first hour.

Several high circulating posts on social media have asserted that Indonesians are primarily using the #KamiTidakTakut tag to express solidarity and their stand during this incident.

However, Instagram posts on this tag predate the Jakarta Blasts by months. In the first hour post-blast, there were only 222 Instagram posts on the #KamiTidakTakut tag, of which only 6 were related to the Jakarta Blasts. Most of the earlier posts were in relation to sporting events.



There were four main categories of PrayForJakarta posts.

The first was text posts bearing “PrayForJakarta” in various fonts.

The second was “PrayForJakarta” text against images of the blasts.

The third was “PrayForJakarta” text against images of the Indonesian landmarks.

The fourth was “PrayForJakarta” text with artwork or photography.

Monumen Nasional

Monumen Nasional (Monas) became the iconic Jakarta emblem to circulate during the incident.

Monas was photographed in daylight,

at night time,

and beautifully illustrated.

National Icons

Well-wishes and prayers were captioned under Jakarta’s iconic cityscape,

the Indonesian flag,

and tigers.

Live Media Coverage

Like in recent disasters, a vast majority of posts were reposts from live media coverage.

This included photographic captures of television screens,

screenshots of news websites,

and screenshots from Twitter.

Live Ground Coverage (trigger warning)

Most strikingly, several Instagram posts featured what appeared to be eye-witness accounts at the site of the blast. This included aerial views of the traffic, bloodied victims, damaged concrete, and stray photographers.

Mixed reactions

Smaller thematic streams presented mixed reactions.

Some of these were anti-terrorist sentiments,

some were messages of resilience and anger,

while others were selfies with captions bearing prayers or tributes.

But perhaps the most troubling were seemingly opportunistic posts jumping onto the hashtag bandwagon, in order to market wares or attract traffic to their Instagram accounts.

A handful of backdated posts, like the following, were even edited to include trending hashtags to increase visibility.


As with most disasters and social movements, reactions to the Jakarta Blasts also borrowed from broader global emblems such as:

The peace sign,

The ribbon,


Keep Calm,

and prayer.

Curiously, a handful of Instagram posts also featured animations of bombs, akin to the rifles of #CharlieHedbo.

See also Instagram during
#JeSuisAhmed and #CharlieHedbo,
and #OccupyCentral.

Over and out,